The "berdache" in Me ♥♥
( bur-dash )
ORIGIN OF BERDACHE
1800–10; < North American French; French bardache passive partner in sodomy, boy prostitute
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, French explorers, traders, and missionaries in the Mississippi Valley occasionally encountered Native Americans who could be classified neither as men nor women. They called such individuals berdaches, a French term for younger partners in male homosexual relationships. In fact, Plains Indian berdaches are best described as occupying an alternative or third gender role, in which traits of men and women are combined with those unique to berdache status. Male berdaches did women's work, cross-dressed or combined male and female clothing, and formed relationships with non-berdache men. - http://plainshumanities.unl.edu/
The Berdache tradition is a Native American/American Indian tradition that allowed for gender role change. Gender role change is the adoption, for various reasons, of a culturally defined social role that is dictated to the opposite sex. This means that a man could adopt the social role of a woman and vice versa.
To Western eyes berdachism is a complex and puzzling phenomenon, mixing and redefining the very concepts of what is considered male and female.
Walter Williams (1986, 1992) traces the origin of the word to Arabic (bardash) meaning "kept boy" or "male prostitute." The term was introduced in the New World and found in the Jesuit relations with Natives who observed men dressed as women among the Iroquois. - Directions in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other Categories
A true Native American term ; Winkte (also spelled wíŋtke) is the contraction of an old Lakota word, winyanktehca, meaning '[wants] to be like a woman'. Historically, the winkte have been considered a social category of male-bodied individuals who adopt the clothing, work, and mannerisms that Lakota culture usually considers feminine
The early european's used the term " berdache ";
to describe sexual-inverts, female-roled type males like myself,
" I myself like the word Winkte because I've always wanted to be like a female "
"Ever since reading of the berdache, I found a type of human being I could truly identify with"
My definition/idea of " berdache " ; " Female-roled male / fully emasculated / Feminized ,that straight / heterosexual males routinely take use of for sexual pleasure. A male " Sexual Substitute ", that performs sexually like a female.
"In a sense, Native American cultures have institutionalized and socially sanctioned homosexual relations by utilizing the berdache role as the preferred same sex partner. When men want to have male/male sex, they are encouraged to do so with a berdache."
A person of a definite sex, male or female, who assumes the status and role of the opposite sex and is viewed by the community as being of one physiologic sex but as having assumed the status and role of the opposite sex.
My definition of " Fully Emasculated " ; having no desire to perform like a man sexually
My definition of " Feminized " ; only performs sexually like female
Myself at age 13, when I took female role sexual with males .
Just as when 13, as now, as a berdache type male, I would be best to dress for my role. Dressing publicly as say I am in image above shows I am male, yet female roled.
" In most of North American there exists the institution of the "berdache", as the French called them. These men-women were men who at puberty or thereafter took the dress and occupations of women. - Ruth Benedict
I do believe , that because I desired to be in the female role sexually with males soon as puberty occurred, then actually having some males want me for this purpose sexually (have me perform fellatio on them and penetrate me anally). Especially due to fact that they were ejaculating up inside me, and due to fact I greatly desired being in this role, they were not taking advantage of me, I very much wanted them to do to me what they were doing.
My point here is I think I was fully " emasculated " at this point in life and was to be 'nonreversible'
Anthropologist, Evelyn Blackwood felt "The berdache gender is not a deviant role.Nor a mixture of the two genders, nor less a jumping from one gender to its opposite.nor is it an alternative role behavior for nontraditional individuals who are still considered men and women. Rather it comprises a separate gender within a multiple gender system (Roscoe, Changing 123)."
Berdaches most often form sexual and emotional relationships with non berdache members of their own sex" (Roscoe, Changing 8).
As opposed to European views of sexuality, Native Americans experience sex as more than a means of reproduction. It is also an activity to be enjoyed and appreciated. Sexual pleasure is considered a gift from the spirit world. As a result, most traditional tribes felt no inhibition in regard to sexual relations. Children were exposed to the sight of adults having sex and some ceremonies involved sex on an orgy level (88). Additionally, sexual contact was not necessarily limited to one’s spouse or to the opposite sex; thus same sex activity was not the exclusive realm of the berdache (90-91).
There are some characteristics of the sexual practices of berdache, which differ from those of other same sex relationships. Berdaches almost always observe an incest taboo which involves the avoidance of sex with another berdache. One explanation for this is that sexual partner of the berdache must, by nature, be masculine (93). This belief is consistent with the emphasis on the gender aspects of the role rather than the sexual aspects. It also dovetails with the information on berdache marriages to masculine men. In these unions, the berdache is considered a wife and is valued by the husband not only for the domestic duties the berdache performs, but also for the socially acceptable homosexual relationship.
In a sense, Native American cultures have institutionalized and socially sanctioned homosexual relations by utilizing the berdache role as the preferred same sex partner. When men want to have male/male sex, they are encouraged to do so with a berdache (95).
The usual sexual behavior of the berdache is to take the passive role in anal intercourse. At times they may indulge in oral sex or take the active role in anal intercourse, but this is not widely talked about. If a berdache wishes to take an active role, it is usually done only in secret and with a partner who can be trusted not to talk. This is also true of the feelings of the man involved with a berdache. If he wishes to assume the passive role, he will try to keep the activity secret.
Another distinctive aspect of berdache sex is that during foreplay and actual intercourse they generally do not like to have their genitals touched. "…. Intercourse with an alyha is surrounded by an etiquette to which the partner had better conform; or else the man could get in all sorts of trouble. Kuwal, a Mohave man who had several alyha as wives, said "they insisted on having their penis referred to as cunnus (clitoris) (97)." "…. I never dared touch the penis in erection except during intercourse. You’d court death otherwise, because they would get violent if you play with their erect penis too much (98)."
Berdaches frequently are available for sex with both unmarried adolescent boys and married men who occasionally seek out same sex partners. Because of this, female prostitution is not needed. Traditional berdaches were also available as sexual partners during hunts and in war parties (102). This was yet another reason why they were welcomed on these excursions.
- A Native American Perspective
Theory of Gender Continuum
"Waiting for the Men to return from the Hunt "
I have always gone to woods because of my need to be with Nature, get away from people and their ideology for awhile, yet because I lost my " virginity " with males whom had sex with me, myself in the female role for them. I must say that because of having my first real sexual experince in the woods, I associate the woods with wanting a man to treat me like a girl.
I know ever since seeing sculptures of Hermaphroditus as a youth, I related to the the " idea " of being male and female in one body, and having the desire to be in the female role for men sexually.
I think it is easy to forget a trait / role of women has been the prostitutional role
And from 1998-2005, I was very much in a prostitutional type role for men
"Its difficult to apply terms like "hetero-" or "homo-" sexuality to TG people. It appears though that most berdaches, especially if they lived as women from a young age were sociialized to have sexual relations with men .It was very common in Native tribes for a berdache to be married to a "straight" man. Neither partner would be regarded as "gay". Polygamy was accepted in many Native cultures .It was especially common in the hierarchical cultures of the Southeast. It would be common for a high statues male, such as a powerful chief, to have many wives and it was very common for at least one of the wives to be a berdache. The berdache would often "stay at home" and take care of the children and do housekeeping while her sister wives would be farming and working in the fields. It was considered lucky to have a berdache wife. Walter Williams in "The Spirit and The Flesh" has a story about the Tlinglish, a group that still lives in British Columbia. These people had a hierarchical status oriented culture and were business and money oriented.There was a family who had a son, a young boy who was unusually feminine. His/her parents married him off to an older man who made a lot of money in the fishing industry, in order to make important business connections for the family. Neither the young boy or "her" husband were considered to be homosexual and the marriage was considered to be a "smart move" by other people in the tribe. - The Way of The Berdache by Kate Devlin
Ruth Benedict's view of the berdache, her book "Patterns of Culture", which I read in mid 90's (still have the book), yet was published in 1934.
" In most of North American there exists the institution of the "berdache", as the French called them. These men-women were men who at puberty or thereafter took the dress and occupations of women.
Some times they married other men and lived with them. Sometimes they were men with no sexual inversion, persons of weak sexual endowment who chose this role to avoid the jeers of the women " - patterns of culture page 263
- Berdache Ways -
♥ In a sense, Native American cultures have institutionalized and socially sanctioned homosexual relations by utilizing the berdache role as the preferred same sex partner. When men want to have male/male sex, they are encouraged to do so with a berdache (95).
♥ The usual sexual behavior of the berdache is to take the passive role in anal intercourse. At times they may indulge in oral sex or take the active role in anal intercourse, but this is not widely talked about. If a berdache wishes to take an active role, it is usually done only in secret and with a partner who can be trusted not to talk. This is also true of the feelings of the man involved with a berdache. If he wishes to assume the passive role, he will try to keep the
activity secret. ( Personally , I have never been in active role,or desire to)
♥ Another distinctive aspect of berdache sex is that during foreplay and actual intercourse they generally do not like to have their genitals touched. "…. Intercourse with an alyha is surrounded by an etiquette to which the partner had better conform; or else the man could get in all sorts of trouble. Kuwal, a Mohave man who had several alyha as wives, said "they insisted on having their penis referred to as cunnus (clitoris) (97)." "…. I never dared touch the penis in erection except during intercourse. You’d court death otherwise, because they would get violent if you play with their erect penis too much (98).
♥ Berdaches frequently are available for sex with both unmarried adolescent boys and married men who occasionally seek out same sex partners. Because of this, female prostitution is not needed. Traditional berdaches were also available as sexual partners during hunts and in war parties (102). This was yet another reason why they were welcomed on these excursions.
“This berdache affected a combination of male and female clothing, fearing that he would die if he did not at least attempt to follow the directions given him in his vision of the moon” .
For a berdache knew but little peace as long as he failed to submit to the imperative requests of a female deity. ( I can very much relate, Nature has created me as "female-roled" and must follow that direction, yet due to society's inability to understand the dilemma of being a " female-roled male " it's not been easy )
It appears that W. W. Hill met a nadle * in the Southwest, an androgyne called Kinipai who, according to the author, seemed not to have found the social integration which Navajo culture reserved for him. Indeed, in the Southwest, the passage from one sexual status to another occurred in less spectacular fashion than, for example, on the Plains. In the interview given by Kinipai, on the other hand, the nadle * was embarrassed by the presence of a stranger, if one can judge from the following :
She (Kinipai) was visibly upset, very nervous, kept her eyes on the ground during the whole recital, kept rubbing her hands together, and squirming. She lost her voice completely for a few moments and when she began to talk, spoke in a whisper, and her accounts were... incoherent... [She claimed to have] ... had relations with more than a hundred men... In the matter of being photographed... [she]... was extremely reluctant to have hers taken, telling the interpreter that she thought I only wanted the picture to make fun of her...- The Berdache : “Man-Woman” in North America
I very much like being with a group of men
I personally know from experience, it is much easier to simply get on my knees, offer my bottom to man ,hand him tube of K-Y jelly, thus he can get his penis slid upside me, hump on me til he ejaculates either up in my bottom with condom on, or if he can in time, get pulled out,get his condom off fast, then ejaculate in my mouth,, so he can watch as I swallow his semen (this is how it has to be if I am with group of men)
The Following suits me very well ;
♥ Berdaches frequently are available for sex with both unmarried men and married men who occasionally seek out same sex partners,to be sexually pleasured.(blow-job,or penetrate me anally)
Because of this, female prostitution is not needed.
Traditional berdaches were also available as sexual partners during hunts and in war parties (102). This was yet another reason why they were welcomed on these excursions.
Thus I always felt as a performer, in that I was a person who could and wanted to be in the female sexual role for a man, at same time I was getting to feel feminine by performing for him, and he was getting his sexual desire relieved.
- Facing Reality -
Being a 100% Female-Roled male
I can relate to females in the
the sexual role they perform
The Puzzle of Women's Sexual Orientation - Why Straight Sexuality Isn't so Straightforward in Women
I love this sculpture
In human evolution;
I actually believe the " berdache " was a companion for the females of the tribe, helping them, especially during " child bearing times " during pregnancy,as well as after child is born, the male(husbands of the females) could see the berdache for sexual purposes during times when the females were unable to be sexual, also the berdache might of been a means of birth control.
The berdache may have even helped the females getting prepared for anal sex with their husbands/mates.
The Complete History of Anal Sex: Part 1
The history of human sexuality is a long and winding tale of various practices, habits, and expressions of human affection, as we endeavor to encapsulate our deepest passion for our partners, and who them ultimately our love. This boundless desire, the raw, sheer passionate emotion that we feel within ourselves is the burning fuel for our sexual practices, whichever form they may take in whichever culture they seek to reflect.
Anal sex has been around for a very, very long time, probably for as long as there have been human beings walking around on this Earth. People have done this practice for various reasons, reasons which I’ve largely spelled out in my first story The Psychology of Anal Sex, which can be found here.
It should be noted here that this work in no way condones coercion or any sexual practices that aren’t taking place between willing participants. This is the disclaimer.
Honestly, after the publication of The Psychology of Anal Sex, I’ve received a lot of feedback in the way of requests for a more detailed history, with readers noting that they wanted more, especially more about the history of the practice of anal sex. Realizing that the history is quite long, rich and detailed, I decided that one Medium story wouldn’t suffice, and decided to make a series.
Here is the first installment in what will become a series detailing the complete history of anal sex.
The Trobriand Islanders
We know that anal sex has been practiced since time immemorial as a form of birth control for couples who didn’t want to have children, and we have sculptures dating back to as far as 4,000 years ago which likely display the act, considering the thoughts of the cultures of the ancient Fertile Crescent at the time. Researchers know that many cultures, even then, used the practice to circumvent having any children, knowing full well that anal sex would not produce children.
French explorer and soldier Baron de Lahontan was more expicit:
“Among the Illinese there are several Hermaphrodites, who go in Womans Habit, but frequent the company of both sexes. These Illinese are strangely given to sodomy, as well as the other Savages that live near the River Missisipi.” (anonymously translated, 1703)
Sex and Conquest:
Gendered Violence, Political Order, and the European Conquest of the Americas.
A few passages by Richard Trexler ;
" Trexler accounts an experience of Hernando de Alarcón in 1541 among natives in lower Colorado which depicts the importance of the role they played within their society. In this scenario, there were four Berdaches living in a village. As soon as one of them died, the next born son was assigned the "function of women." S/he wore women's clothing, and was prohibited from having sexual relations with women. "They received no compensation for this work of prostitution from the people in the region, although they were free to take from any house what they needed for their living" (Trexler, 87).
" The Amerindian berdache was strikingly similar to other passive homosexual men throughout the ages; but unlike the young men seduced and made part of a ruler’s or chief’s retinue in Europe, the berdache was also a transvestite. Furthermore, unlike young men who, as teenagers, sometimes played the passive role in homosexual relationships and later, as adults, took on the active role in heterosexual ones, the berdache was gendered female for life. Trexler explores the process that created the berdache, arguing that in addition to conquest, some young male children were slated by their parents to be passive like females even before they showed any sexual proclivity; still others chose to become berdaches as adults, Trexler also looks at the roles assumed by the berdache (including temple service, “marriage,” brothel service, and women’s work) and the Iberian attitudes toward Amerindian passives. He finds, surprisingly, that Europeans and natives shared a negative view of the berdache for being dominated rather than dominant.
While some of the hypotheses Trexler presents in this metahistory of homosexual conquest and submission are interesting, few are actually proved. Most of Trexler’s findings are couched in language replete with “perhaps,” “assuming that,” and “possible”; he admits that many of his contentions bear scant evidence, but this has little effect on his willingness to plunge ahead. All the evidence, moreover, is based on his reading of chronicles and secondary sources. Lacking Spanish sources, he has no trouble turning to nineteenth-century descriptions of homosexual practices among the tribes of coastal Anglo-America, the Great Plains, and the Southwest (that is, the Delaware, Sioux, and Hopi) to understand sixteenth-century Mexico and Peru.
Different perspectives of the; "Third-gender"
Third gender and sexual orientation / wikipedia
Cover of Artemis Smith's 1959 lesbian pulp fiction novel The Third Sex
Before the sexual revolution of the 1960s, there was no common non-derogatory vocabulary for non-heterosexuality; terms such as "third gender" trace back to the 1860s.
One such term, Uranian, was used in the 19th century to a person of a third sex—originally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men. Its definition was later extended to cover homosexual gender variant females and a number of other sexual types. It is believed to be an English adaptation of the German word Urning, which was first published by activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–95) in a series of five booklets (1864–65) that were collected under the title Forschungen über das Räthsel der mannmännlichen Liebe ("Research into the Riddle of Man-Male Love"). Ulrich developed his terminology before the first public use of the term "homosexual", which appeared in 1869 in a pamphlet published anonymously by Karl-Maria Kertbeny (1824–82).
The word Uranian (Urning) was derived by Ulrichs from the Greek goddess Aphrodite Urania, who was created out of the god Uranus' testicles; it stood for homosexuality, while Aphrodite Dionea (Dioning) represented heterosexuality. Lesbian activist Anna Rueling used the term in a 1904 speech, "What Interest Does the Women's Movement Have in Solving the Homosexual Problem?"
According to some scholars, the West is trying to reinterpret and redefine ancient third-gender identities to fit the Western concept of sexual orientation. In Redefining Fa'afafine: Western Discourses and the Construction of Transgenderism in Samoa, Johanna Schmidt argues that the Western attempts to reinterpret fa'afafine, the third gender in Samoan culture, make it have more to do with sexual orientation than gender. She also argues that this is actually changing the nature of fa'afafine itself, and making it more "homosexual".
A Samoan fa'afafine said, "But I would like to pursue a master's degree with a paper on homosexuality from a Samoan perspective that would be written for educational purposes, because I believe some of the stuff that has been written about us is quite wrong."
In How to become a Berdache: Toward a unified analysis of gender diversity, Will Roscoe writes that "this pattern can be traced from the earliest accounts of the Spaniards to present-day ethnographies. What has been written about berdaches reflects more the influence of existing Western discourses on gender, sexuality and the Other than what observers actually witnessed."
Uranian is a 19th-century term that referred to a person of a third sex—originally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men,(very much me) and later extended to cover homosexual gender variant females, and a number of other sexual types. The term was first published by activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–95) in a series of five booklets (1864–65) collected under the title Forschungen über das Räthsel der mannmännlichen Liebe (Research into the Riddle of Man–Male Love). Ulrichs derived Uranian (Urning in German) from the Greek goddess Aphrodite Urania, who was created out of the god Uranus' testicles. Therefore, it represents the homosexual gender, while Dionian (Dioning), derived from Aphrodite Dionea, represents the heterosexual gender. Ulrichs developed his terminology before the first public use of the term homosexual, which appeared in 1869 in a pamphlet published anonymously by Karl-Maria Kertbeny
Development of classification scheme for sexual types
Ulrichs came to understand that not all male-bodied people with sexual attraction to men were feminine in nature. He developed a more complex threefold axis for understanding sexual and gender variance: sexual orientation (male-attracted, bisexual, or female-attracted), preferred sexual behavior (passive, no preference, or active), and gender characteristics (feminine, intermediate, or masculine). The three axes were usually, but not necessarily, linked – Ulrichs himself, for example, was a Weibling (feminine homosexual) who preferred the active sexual role.
The term Uranian was quickly adopted by English-language advocates of homosexual emancipation in the Victorian era, such as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds, who used it to describe a comradely love that would bring about true democracy, uniting the "estranged ranks of society" and breaking down class and gender barriers. Oscar Wilde wrote to Robert Ross in an undated letter (?18 February 1898): "To have altered my life would have been to have admitted that Uranian love is ignoble. I hold it to be noble—more noble than other forms."
I always kind of seen myself as a;
"Sexual Surrogate roled as a female "
and to be used by my tribe of men simply for their sexual pleasure
" my men very much knew I only wished to perform sexually for them in the ;
female-role, that I wanted to be made to feel feminine "
The following is a passage from ;
"In search of the -berdache"
Department of Anthropology
Columbia University in the City of New York
▶ The sexual partner of a male "berdache" engaged in sexual activity with someone of his own biological sex, but neither his behavior nor his partner's was considered to be homosexual because they were of different genders, i.e., heterogendered. By a definition based solely on biological sex assignment, homosexuality was indeed legitimized; the problem is that such a definition is completely inapplicable. A EuroAmerican conception of "homosexuality" which equates biological sex with gender is totally incompatible with the far more complex native reality. The fact is that cultures providing a "berdache" status likely did so in order to avoid the designation of homosexuality by shifting genders, and did in most cases prohibit the equivalent of "homosexual" behavior: Homogendered sexual activity was not acceptable, and two males who both identified as men could not freely engage in sexual activity under any circumstance. Therefore, if homosexuality has ever been "institutionalized," and if there have ever been more than two genders, it has apparently not been among the peoples native to North America.
Once the transformation was complete, the individual was expected to conform completely to the new gender role so that "normal" individuals of the same biological sex will "feel toward him as though he truly belonged to his adopted sex" (501-502). The gender identity of the alyha and hwame extended from social being to physical body, and they are said to have resented any "normal nomenclature applied to their genitalia." Devereaux explained:
Alyha insisted that their penis (modar) be called a clitoris (havalik), their testes (hama), labia minora (havakwit), and their anus (hivey), vagina (hiqpan). The hwame equally resented any reference to the fact that they had vulvae, but it was not stated that they insisted on a corresponding male terminology. (510)
For myself , I've always liked guys to refer to my bottom as my " boy pussy "
Gregory B. Sadler talks about Ruth Benedict's views on roles of the " berdache" type males whom take the role of female. By way of Ruth Benedict's book " Patterns of culture " is how I learned of term " berdache ", and instantly knew I was very similar to this type of person, in that I have always felt I should be more like a female, sexually I have always felt I should be in female role, I have always wanted to appear feminine.
I like having a group of men to serve sexually
( on a daily routine basis- Catamite)
The word appears widely but not necessarily frequently in the Latin literature of antiquity, from Plautus to Ausonius. It is sometimes a synonym for puer delicatus, "delicate boy". Cicero uses the term as an insult. The word became a general term for a boy groomed for sexual purposes. -wikipedia
( parties where I'd get "gang-banged" )
Sexual Function & dysfunction. - gendermedical.com
"Throughout the course of human history the only truly free source of pleasure
& happiness has been sex. You didn’t have to plant it, water it, grow, or even catch it "
Sexuality & the trans-woman; taboos & triumphs
Sexuality has been universally a taboo subject for thousands of years. Religions of all kinds promote prudishness while idealizing celibacy as if abstinence were a great virtue & sexuality was intrinsically evil, to be sanctioned only within the bounds of matrimony where its primary purpose should be to procreate. How odd is this, this demonization of an urge as natural as eating food or drinking water, this insistence on making it dirty.
The vast majority of people throughout the world are fascinated about sex, although their interest is often prurient. When it comes to sexual activity taking place between consenting adults in the privacy of their own homes however, this prurient interest has no place, whether publically or officially. Despite the free availability of sex, the powers that be, both temporal & religious have consistently interfered with human sexuality, licensing it, regulating it, moralizing about it, allowing tort lawyers to exploit it at great cost to both of the participants & in the case of people like Alan Turing, ruining their lives over it, perhaps even killing them. And all of this over a set of behaviors which, whether gay or straight, cross-dressed or otherwise, is nobody else’s business.
The history of the erection
Credible scientific research in the area of sexuality has been limited and less than objective because of our social hang-ups and squeamish avoidance about the subject. If the general area of sex is so publicly taboo just imagine how much more phobic people must feel about transgendered sexuality. Our ignorance on this particular topic is immense but central to the entire area is the nature of the penile erection.
Prior to the advent of modern medical/surgical gender transitioning, castration was the only avenue toward feminization. Castration can be performed either before or after puberty. The pre-pubertal castrato, a popular feature in church choirs up until as recently as the 18th century, was asexual. The male who is castrated after puberty is quite a different matter and is called a scopt. Scopts can adequately perform sexually although s0me provocative stimulation is usually needed to bring them to a state of tumescent arousal, in contrast to the intact male who is a self-starter. The scopt is usually more detached, rational & in voluntary control of his sexuality than is the intact male who may be whipped into action by the tides of his own testosterone, even when this is inconvenient.
Scopts have played prominent roles in history, being involved in three major attempts to overthrow imperial dynasties. The Eastern Roman Empire of the Byzantines, the Ottoman Empire & the Tang dynasty of imperial China all experienced attempted power grabs by imperial eunuchs. The reason for this lay with their capacity to function sexually without fear of pregnancy. Their sterility meant that scopts might freely enter and leave the imperial harems. But this gave them access to some very powerful women whose children were competing for the imperial succession, women whose power was potential rather than real, for want of representation in the outer world. And this is where the scopts came in.
Thanks to their sterility, scopts were being allowed easy access to the harems from which intact males were strictly prohibited. In consequence they could access the imperial mothers, many of whom had been discarded in favor of younger women, despite the fact that these older women were the likely mothers of future kings and emperors, rather than the new wives. What gave the scopts their edge however was that while they might not be fertile, they could still function sexually, which allowed them to satisfy these women & become their agents.
How can this be?
It happens that sexual function requires far less testosterone than is needed for the overall masculinization of the male body. And even after the removal of the testes, the scopt’s body possesses a pair of adrenal glands capable of generating the far lower amounts of androgens that are required for sexual function. To sum up, the scopt’s adrenal glands produce androgens at a level more than sufficient to maintain sexual function and to keep depression at bay. He possesses enough androgen to support provoked-sexuality but not so much androgen as to make him spontaneously sexual, a testosterone-driven fool subject to the whims of his own sexual follies. That makes the scopt a potentially dangerous man.
So how does all this translate to the transgender situation? That depends on who we are talking to. Sexual function in humans is a complicated process compared to the perfunctory sexuality of the lower animals because of the human mind’s unique capacity for over-riding or modifying the body’s natural drives. However before we get into the variations of sexuality practiced by trans-women, I want to clarify my terms. I personally find that socially-based wordage such as homosexuality & heterosexuality just gets in the way here. I prefer to think of the dichotomy of giver & receiver, or as many trans-women like to put it, of tops & bottoms.
Variations on a theme
Trans-sexuality is complex because it may involve each sexual partner penetrating or being penetrated, or both or neither. Thus many trans-women wish they never had a penis or that it would simply go away. And moving a step more distant from sexuality, some of them even desire to be totally asexual and feel that the penis and the sexual urges they sometimes experience are a distraction that just gets in the way. But wait a minute; surely not all of these sex-rejecting women want to live like robots existing in a social vacuum, totally devoid of feelings such as friendship, caring or compassion. Surely even for the trans-woman who wishes to dispense with sexual activity altogether, she might still wish to have friends and to connect with people in a warm, non-sexual way. After all her sexual hormones are the drivers that act upon the brain to endow her with the vibes, personality, communication skills & the energy to for example flirt with other people or even just to feel warm-heartedly comfortable with them, activities that run far short of overt sexual action.
In my opinion we are far too dualistically extreme about sexuality, too black or white about its nature. Sexuality is not limited to the extremity of full-blown, at times domineering, even abusive tumescence & copulation. It also plays a role in more subtle social interplays. There is an element of the sexual gestalt built into even some of the most innocent social interactions, but this is a clean, innocuous kind of sexual element, rather than the tawdry, embarrassing kind of concept dreamt up by our dirty minds in response to the thou-shalt-nots of controlling, guilt-ridden religiosity.
Shifting to a grayer approach we can begin to appreciate the more submerged influences of sex as they contribute to many of the little elements in our daily life, & the way we interact with others. From this more holistic sexual viewpoint it all begins with brain & mind, critical targets for the sexual hormones, whose influences there are a prominent part of what ultimately defines not only feminine sexuality & sexual function, but offers a real window into the mysterious feminine state of mind. We are talking here about feminine insight & even feminine identity in and of itself. And let me remind both of us that for the trans-woman, that is what it is really all about, identity, feminine identity!
(In my case a Female-roled male, the need to feel feminine is very important -me )
Retaining or restoring functionality
Many trans-women desire continued phallic function & fear that feminizing hormone therapy might reduce or eliminate it along with their customary sexual feelings & sexual desires. This group of people may normally function either as versatiles or as tops only, and their partners may be members of either gender. While erectile function is terribly important for those in this group, it would be pointless to retain it unless it was accompanied by a matching level of sexual drive or libido. In addition the genital skin needs to be sexually sensitive along with other erogenous zones. For example nipple sensitivity is greatly increased by virtue of feminizing hormone therapy, creating a novel, highly gratifying source of sexual satisfaction in trans-women.
Many young trans-patients, whether tops or bottoms, pre-operative or post-op, frequently tolerate highly effective doses of feminizing hormones, both estrogens & progestins without any loss of sexual desire or function. Indeed we at our center have seen many uber-feminized, strikingly attractive trans-women who could still achieve full erectile function. Even when retained however, the quality and nature of sexuality in the trans-woman does tend to have a slightly different quality. Many trans-women describe a climactic experience that is more complex than it was before hormones. They describe their climax as being better, more drawn out, sustained, widespread and transcendental.
When sexuality has been compromised
For others, erectile function may be blunted or even lost. At this point hormonal intervention is urgently required and when applied at the hands of an enlightened, non-judgmental, experienced medical practitioner, it can be highly effective. As the need arises, hormonal therapies and medical treatments can restore sexual function without too much difficulty. We believe that restoration and maintenance of sexual function should be available to all trans-women who desire it, regardless of the prevailing social attitudes of the community at large. This brings up the most important feature of trans-care, which is attitude.
The attitude at our hormone center is neither anti-transgender nor is it anti-sexual. Our first step toward sexual restoration is the elimination of anti-androgenic drugs. Our patients generally tend to use far lower doses of anti-androgens than other practitioners because our feminizing hormone methods are so highly effective. Spironolactone is an anti-androgenic progestin which antagonizes all androgens indiscriminately, no matter what their source may be, whether testicular, adrenal or therapeutic, and it may thus fuel erectile dysfunction, fatigue, low blood pressure and even depression. Needless to say, depression itself has a lethal impact on all aspects of sexuality and needs to be addressed in those suffering from inherited, hormonally-induced or psychogenic mood disorders.
Not a top?
It is usually the ‘top’ who comes seeking sexual restoration but let us not forget those trans-women who are not tops. The knee-jerk reaction is to ignore their needs since surely they do not require tumescence. This attitude is simplistic & invalid. There is more to sexuality than tumescence. Other critical factors include sexual drive or libido and climax or orgasm. First of all even in the receiving patient, tumescence may still be desirable because it makes the partner feel appreciated and wanted or it may become stimulated by the partner in other, non-penetrative ways. Furthermore, even in those bottom patients who are disinterested in erectile function, they still usually desire to retain a sexual drive in the same manner as does a genetic female.
Over and beyond libido & tumescence there is that wonderful culmination of the sexual act, the orgasmic climax. Even in the individual who lacks a partner, self-stimulation to orgasm is often a desired, remarkably safe & satisfactory source of sexual pleasure, and the firmer the organ, the better the orgasmic quality. What could be more harmless & victimless than solo-sexuality?
Some of my trans-women tell me that orgasm as they especially experience it is absolutely amazing. In the bottom patient this is particularly the case. Her prostate gland, when stimulated during penetration, greatly increases orgasmic intensity. What people forget however is that the testosterone-deprived prostate gland loses its sexual sensitivity, a loss that can be restored through hormone therapy. In contrast to these bottom patients who need to be amped up there is a particular group of trans-women who appear to be phenomenally hypersexual. They may climax as many times as 8 or 10 times a day, as if they had an unscratchable itch. They often describe a history of fetishism, sexual addiction & OCD-like features. For them a reduction in sexual drive is often desired.
The post-GRS & post orchiectomy patients
This brings us finally to the post-operative trans-woman, the forgotten child of trans-care. She is hormonally no different from the post-orchiectomy patient. When these two groups of trans-women are administered feminizing hormones they tend to develop testosterone levels that lie well below even the normal female range. A quiet, atypical depression often surfaces in them & sexual drive, vaginal lubrication & orgasm vanish rapidly, all of this needlessly I might add. These features of the post-operative trans-woman who avoids hormone therapy are also accompanied by premature heart disease, dementia & physical premature aging. In these women, hormonal therapy is essential, yet sadly the majority of post-operative patients obtain no hormone therapy whatsoever!
The good news
The excellent news for each group of women belonging under the broad cloak of transsexuality is that sexual desire & sexual function can be modulated & tailored to the level that each individual desires, through the use of precision hormone therapy. All in all & despite at times negative mainstream attitudes against it, transsexuality is a biologically-driven human variant worthy of our attention & respect. A wide variety of treatments are available that can effectively correct not only erectile dysfunction but also optimize the entire panorama of sexual functions & idiosyncrasies including the sexual drive, prostatic pleasure & genital sensitivity that transsexuals seek without sacrificing the underpinnings of femininity that they have worked so hard & long to achieve. To attain this kind of balance all one has to do is visit a physician who is truly an expert in the field.
"We stand at the dawning of a new age in transgender hormone therapy. Our newfound appreciation that the sexual hormones have a far wider scope & influence than previously appreciated will change everything for this field of endocrine treatment. Far more than sexual, these hormones have an enormous, indeed pivotal effect on the brain & the immune/inflammatory system. This finally places hormone therapy on a rational footing based on complex scientific principles instead of antiquated, simplistic cookbook recipes."
The reason Trans-woman term doesn't fit myself, is I see myself as a male, yet completely Feminized, thus only have desire to perform sexually in the female role and thus be a ;
"male with a vulva"
" Female-roled male "
Be a man's berdache
♥ berdaches frequently are available for sex with both unmarried men and married men who occasionally seek out same sex partners,to be sexually pleasured
My biggest concern regarding having "GRS " and thus having a female looking vulva has always been the " Hormone issues ", depression, weight gain, loss of strength etc.
And as Dr John O'Dea's writings present, it is a big,big Issue.
A great desire to get " Impregnated "
I always felt this is the most similar psychological feeling I have, that must be similar to a " true female ". Silly as sounds, I fantasize a man will magically make me pregnant.
Next to always wishing I had a vagina, the desire to get pregnant, are two main factors that define me as transsexual type, I feel.
One thing I have always tried to do with men whom I was having sex with, or talking in hopes of having sex with, is to verbally covey to them that I see myself as very female like, and I have always wished that I had of be born a female. I truly would like to have surgery so didn't have a penis, and at least had a female looking vulva.
I would ask them to think of me as
" wanta be transsexual / female "
A NOTE ON BERDACHE
Brief Communicalions 121 MURDOCK, G. P. and others 1950 Outline of cultural materials. 3d revised ed. Behavior Science Outlines, Vol. I. New Haven, Human Relations Area Files. Sixth Ed. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. Notes and Queries on Anthropology 1951;
A NOTE ON BERDACHE;
" An etymological investigation of the English word “berdache,” or “berdash,” indicates that it derived from the French word “bardash,” which derived from the Italian word “berdascia,” which derived from the Arabic “bardaj,” which derived from the Persian “barah.” While the word underwent considerable change the meaning in each instance remained constant, being a “kept boy,” a “male prostitute,” a “catamite.” The term was first used, as far as we can discern, in an anthropological or quasi-anthropological sense by early French travelers and explorers, who used it to designate passive homosexuals, or, more specifically, those individuals who played a passive role to sodomy. Contaminating the classical picture, however, was the element of transvestism, One early French writer (Bossu 1768:lOO) says, “The majority [of the Choctaws] are addicted to sodomy. These corrupt men [the berdache] wear their hair long and a short skirt like the women.” The French found this contamination not only in southeastern North America but in the northeastern sector as well. Long in contact with the Indian groups in this area they witnessed the emasculation of prisoners by the assignment of feminine attire and feminine pursuits. While the production of a class of “male prostitutes” or “male concubines” was not the primary aim of this procedure, it soon became incorporated so that these “made women” conformed to the classical pattern. But again there was the added feature, the assumption of feminine pursuits and feminine attire (Morgan 1922: 14,329).
An interest in feminine pursuits and transvestism came quite naturally to become associated with berdache. So much so, in fact, that in present-day ethnographic accounts transvestism and effeminacy have become synonymous with berdache. But complicating what might be an adequate characterization of North American berdache are male sexual inverts who are practicing prostitutes but who retain all external masculine characteristics-dress, privileges, and the like -coincidental with individuals who assume the dress, habits, and privileges of women, but who are not sexually inverted, maintaining, on the contrary, a heterosexual relationship. Or, again, with males who assume the attributes of women but who marry men. The literature is replete with accounts of berdache who are married, true enough, in many instances, to individuals of the same physiological sex, but married they are and in such a case cannot be termed prostitute.
It was this state, perhaps, which led some investigators to characterize berdache exclusive of sex. Thwaites (1899: 139), for instance, defines berdaches, also to be referred to as transvestites, “as those persons, male or female who, while still young, assume the dress and habits of the opposite sex and retain them throughout their lives.” Kroeber (1940: 209-10) characterizes berdache or transvestism in much the same manner. “In most of primitive Northern Asia and North America men of homosexual trends adopted women’s work and status and were accepted as non psychological, but institutionalized women.” Here there is mention of two criteria: social role and erotic object. Kroeber is not completely satisfied with the second of these for he goes on to say, “How far invert erotic practices accompanied the status is not always clear from the data and probably varied . . . at any rate, the North American attitude toward the berdache stresses not his erotic life, but his social status; born a male he became accepted as a woman socially.” It becomes clear that from a definition which stresses erotic object we proceed to one where erotic object is negligible. Of considerable importance is the emphasis on the assumption of a contrary social role in combination with cross-dressing."
My point or response to the above has to be " if you take 100 white males, they will all be different in "Likes", mannerism etc. Same goes for berdache type males.All people as far as that goes. Thus you have to find out what each and every one is truly like.
Yet for me , I use the term berdache to define myself with the above traits ;
" The term was first used, as far as we can discern, in an anthropological or quasi-anthropological sense by early French travelers and explorers, who used it to designate passive homosexuals, or, more specifically, those individuals who played a passive role to sodomy. Contaminating the classical picture, however, was the element of transvestism, One early French writer (Bossu 1768:lOO) says, “The majority [of the Choctaws] are addicted to sodomy. These corrupt men [the berdache] wear their hair long and a short skirt like the women.”
As I would describe myself as fully sexual inverted (female-roled sexually)...this I've known since puberty.
I personally don't see wanting to have men penetrate me anally as a addiction, I see it as my sexual role, the only role I wish to take.
One has to remember, just as women want to show femininity by the way they dress, I want to convey to a man that I am feminine, I only wish to perform sexual in the female-role for him. I am no different then most females in this regard, I very much desire a male that I might find to be a good sexual partner. So I naturally want to dress in a more feminine way.
" wear their hair long and a short skirt like the women.”
For myself, I don't want a man to see me as male or female, just a human being he can routinely have sex with,that will perform only in the female-role for him.
And because I only desire to be female roled, the desire to have a vulva, not a penis conveys to a male partner that I am fully feminized, and only desire to be treated sexually as though I am female.
And I'm not going to be ashamed to say ;
" I love to suck cock, and even more so love having a man's cock up inside my bottom "
At the end of the day,
is the most clear,accurate was to define myself psychologically
I just wish American culture had this
"Role" implemented into it's culture, life would be easier for many,
" boys raised to be girls "
I know, I be wearing a skirt !,
And at least publicly ,
I could identify as a "Berdache "
Anthropologists later applied the term berdache to American Indians who assumed the dress, social status, and role of the opposite sex." (The Native Americans didn't invent this term) and if left up to the early Christian missionaries in north america, there would be no history of the " berdache " type individuals
For myself what is important about this term, it ideally defines the type of individual I am, as well as it reflects that individuals like myself have existed .
The only othet type individuals I relate to are the ;
Fa'afafine and Muxe
They to can be female-roled males
Just imagine your a member of a north American tribe in 1600 AD.
"order must be kept "
Everybody knows everybody,
the ratio of males to females needs to be maintained, yet for
whatever reason there is a out of balance, many more males then females, at post-puberty age, this is big issue now, number one, the young females may need shielded from the young males, yet in this male group there are several effeminate/cute boys and like myself are turned on by males instead of females. Then one day one of the males and I are bathing nude in the river together, I notice he has a erection, I stare, I soon am erect myself, he turns to see that I am staring, he then just slowly walks over to me, all I can do is go to my knees, take his erect penis in my mouth, he then guides my hand to the shaft of his penis, shows me how to stroke it as I hold it in my mouth, suck it,tongue it, soon he begins to moan, jerk about, then I feel the juices begin to squirt into my mouth. This becomes a routine between him and I, then one day, un be known to he and I, some other males had seen us doing this, first one of our observer approaches me, and asks if I might like to do that to him, I do,so then routinely started performing for him, the word traveled fast, soon the whole tribe knew,
The adult talked, the decision was made, I was to wear clothes like the girls, as well as play and work with the girls, and my role was to shield them from any boys wanting sex,including myself, yet I lacked the sexual interest in the girls compared to the normal boys, I was very happy pleasing the boys sexual.So a Berdache is created or becomes a ;
I think once a berdache,always a berdache
Thus a very important part of my role is not only performing sexually for a man as best like a female as possible, yet look as feminine and receptive as I possibly can. I very much see it as a role/duty.
Just as the berdaches long ago may have, for example ;
The berdaches first and foremost had to be trusted with all the females and males of the tribe, much like the eunuchs of China, yet no need to be castrated due to fact we are sexually inverted, and only like a hetersexual females, we only desire to be impregnated as well. To break that trust would be really bad !
For example; To me there is nothing I desire more or that is more intimate then having a man at least try to " impregnate " me.
At least for myself, from the first time I submitted to man, let him " impregnate " me, my role was set, the thought of being anything other then " Female-roled " vanished,
psychologically it just is so right for me, I can't imagine being male roled now.
" This is no dress rehearsal. We are professionals and this is the big time." - unknown
A quote I read, yet a good way to live, and for myself whether I am doing my carpentry work, posing nude for artists, sucking cock or getting boned, I try to be a
And if living in a society where one is in constant fear of Approval, worried of shame, it's hard to focus on the task at hand -me
Why do I have the sexual desire
of like " I am a Female "
has been a life long dilemma.
A few excerpts from above article;
Ah, this is the interesting part!
As I said before, there is intense evolutionary pressure for males to control paternity, particularly in monogamously breeding species. A variety of strategies are used to combat female infidelity in animals – mate-guarding being the most common. ( I think this is a important aspect of berdache )
Although anthropology is not my area, it seems to me that from an evolutionary perspective, culture gives humans the unique opportunity to take advantage of a different strategy. If you can effectively intervene with cultural rules and expectations and thus control the decision-making process involved in female choice, i.e., control whether desire leads to sex, you essentially get control of reproduction. And who controls paternity controls the world!
Put another way, if you have a culture that convinces women that 1) they are less interested in sex than men and 2) they are more interested in monogamy, then you create a situation whereby women learn to ignore or disregard their own physical arousal, particularly in situations that are deemed inappropriate.
Of course, other cultural mechanisms work to reinforce this through slut-shaming and even physical punishment, but surely the psychological strategy would be the most effective because women internalize it so completely.
There is a general need to mate and an immediate need when aroused. The general need drives much of our interaction with the opposite gender. This drive does not fade and even old people will flirt. When aroused, the drive to mate can be overpowering and take priority over other needs and values.
" Thus the berdache is perfect , when amongest a Tribe of horny males ", when unable to find a availble approprate female " - me
"All lot of guys liked to just use me for " practicing " new ways "
"Often a guy with a very big penis liked just using me for anal "
do to fact females were unable to Accommodate the size
I would say 90 % of the men whom have mated with me, have me get on my knees and mount me from behind. I am quite aware that a need to de-personalize what we are doing, remove the stigma of me being a male, unforunately it often causes them to " hump me " quickly , thus soon ejaculating, yet the objective for both of us gets achived sexual release for us both.
Thus for myself, it important a man see my " bottom " as alluring , feminine enough so he psychologically can use me as a substitute for a real female.
So for myself, my desire is to have my bottom look alluring enough, so a man can use it as a substitute for a real female. (for penetration)
-Why did North American Natives have berdache men -
" According to non-Native anthropologist Will Roscoe, both male- and female-bodied two-spirits (berdache) have been documented "in over 130 North American tribes, in every region of the continent"
Don Pedro Fages was third in command of the 1769–70 Spanish Portolá expedition, the first European land exploration of what is now the U.S. state of California. At least three diaries were kept during the expedition, but Fages wrote his account later, in 1775. Fages gave more descriptive details about the native Californians than any of the others, and he alone reported the presence of homosexuality in the native culture. The English translation reads:
I have submitted substantial evidence that those Indian men who, both here and farther inland, are observed in the dress, clothing and character of women – there being two or three such in each village – pass as sodomites by profession. ... They are called joyas,(gem) and are held in great esteem.
Among the Iroquois, there is a single report from Bacqueville de la Potherie in his book published in 1722, Histoire de l'Amérique septentrionale, that indicates that an alternative gender identity exists among them.
The winkte are a social category in Lakota culture, of male people who adopt the clothing, work, and mannerisms that Lakota culture usually considers feminine. Usually winkte are homosexual, and sometimes the word is also used for gay men who are not in any other way gender-variant.
Native American tribes and Matriarchy
" The Iroquois Confederacy or League, According to Doug George-Kanentiio, in this society, mothers exercise central moral and political roles. The dates of this constitution's operation are unknown; the League was formed in approximately 1000–1450, but the constitution was oral until written in about 1880. The League still exists.
In our society, women are the center of all things. Nature, we believe, has given women the ability to create; therefore it is only natural that women be in positions of power to protect this function....We traced our clans through women; a child born into the world assumed the clan membership of its mother. Our young women were expected to be physically strong....The young women received formal instruction in traditional planting....Since the Iroquois were absolutely dependent upon the crops they grew, whoever controlled this vital activity wielded great power within our communities. It was our belief that since women were the givers of life they naturally regulated the feeding of our people....In all countries, real wealth stems from the control of land and its resources. Our Iroquois philosophers knew this as well as we knew natural law. To us it made sense for women to control the land since they were far more sensitive to the rhythms of the Mother Earth. We did not own the land but were custodians of it. Our women decided any and all issues involving territory, including where a community was to be built and how land was to be used....In our political system, we mandated full equality. Our leaders were selected by a caucus of women before the appointments were subject to popular review....Our traditional governments are composed of an equal number of men and women. The men are chiefs and the women clan-mothers....As leaders, the women closely monitor the actions of the men and retain the right to veto any law they deem inappropriate....Our women not only hold the reigns of political and economic power, they also have the right to determine all issues involving the taking of human life. Declarations of war had to be approved by the women, while treaties of peace were subject to their deliberations."
From a symbolic stand point, since reading the following statement ;
" " Harry Benjamin writes that "Other transsexuals find prostitution a useful profession for emotional as well as practical reasons".:50–51 Benjamin goes on to say, "How much more can his femininity be reaffirmed than by again and again attracting normal, heterosexual, and unsuspecting men and even being paid for rendering sex service as a woman?" - Homosexual transexual-wikipedia
Of the many anthropologists and observers of the Navajo, only the self trained Haile has been forthcoming regarding the sexuality of the nddleehC-"a name," he once wrote, "which implies that the man is proficient not only in feminine accomplishments, but also practices pederasty." Elsewhere he reported that "of the white [sicl] and native nddleeh who came under my observation, or of whom 1 made inquiries, the evidence showed them to be active pederasts and sodomites." Most nddleehC formed relationships with members of their own sex, although some male nc1dleehc married women. One Navajo told Hill, "If they marry men, it is just like two men working together.,,26 That nddleehi were expected to be sexually active with men is indicated by the episode of the Navajo origin myth in which the men and women separate. The nddleehC joins the men, and among the services he provides them is sex.27
-Changing Ones by Will Roscoe
Alternative gender roles were among the most widely shared features of Nonh American societies. Male berdaches have been documented in over 155 tribes (see Tribal Index). In about a third of these groups, a formal status also existed for females who undenook a man's lifestyle, becoming hunters, warriors, and chiefs. They were sometimes referred to with the same term for male berdaches and sometimes with a distinct term-making them, therefore, a founh gender. (Thus, "third gender" generally refers to male berdaches and sometimes male and female berdaches, while "founh gender" always refers to female berdaches. Each tribe, of course, had its own terms for these roles, like bote in Crow, nadleehl in Navajo, winkte in ukota, and alyha: and hwame: in Mohave.) Because so many Nonh American cultures were disrupted (or had disappeared) before they were studied by anthropologists, it is not possible to state the absolute frequency of these roles. Those alternative gender roles that have been documented, however, occur in every region of the continent, in every kind of society, and among speakers of every major language group. The number of tribes in which the existence of such roles have been denied (by informants or outsider observers) are quite few. Far greater are those instances in which information regarding the presence of gender diversity has simply not been recorded.
Indeed, some male berdaches were very active sexually. The Navajo nadluhi Kinabahi told Willard Hill that "she" had had sex with over one hundred different men. 16 The Sauk and Fox tribe held an annual dance in which a berdache. or aya'hwa, appeared surrounded by all "her" lovers,and Lakota winhte bestowed bawdy nicknames as a souvenir of sexual encounters with them. In fact. Lakota warriors sometimes visited winhte before going to battle as a means of increasing their own masculinity. In the early eighteenth century, Ojibway men had sex with the berdache Ozaw-wen-dib (Yellowhead), himself an accomplished warrior, "to acquire his fighting ability and courage, by having intimate connection with him."In a similar vein, an Omaha chief once claimed he could change the weather because he had had sex four times with a male berdache. The active sex life of berdaches led them to be considered fortui
The only sexual relationships berdaches are not known to have formed are ones involving other berdaches.
The primary characteristic of third gender sexuality in the native view was not its same-sex nature, but the fact that it was nonprocreative. That is, rather than an opposition of heterosexuality to homosexuality; native beliefs opposed reproductive to nonreproductive sex. (This is especially apparent in the case of native terms for berdaches that literally mean "sterile" or Uimpotent"--see the Glossary of Native Terms). Reproductive sex was engaged in to obtain children and fulfill one's kinship role. Nonreproductive sex was engaged in for pleasure and emotional rewards. As such, sexual pleasure was valued in its own right-it forged relationships, it was entenaining, it was necessary for good health. In these belief systems, third and fourth genders represented special instances of non procreative sexuality and romantic love. Given the relative absence of restrictions on their sexual availability within a kinship-based social organization, individuals in these roles had more opportunities to engage in sexual activity than did men or women. Although long-term relationships between berdaches and non-berdaches were considered marriages, they do not seem to have been the product of alliance politics between families, to have involved bridewealth or brideservice, or to have been governed by restrictions on the social status of the partners. When such relationships dissolved the disputes involved were usually limited to the couple alone, not their families or clans.
That berdaches were accepted and integrated members of their communities is underscored throughout the ethnographic literature and confirmed by contemporary natives. In some tribes, alternative genders enjoyed special respect and privileges. In a few cases, berdaches were feared because of their supernatural power. If they were scorned, hated, or ridiculed, it was usually for individual reasons and not because of their gender difference, at least until the twentieth century.
Nearly all the French observers commented on their sexuality-ikoueta practiced "sodomy"-unciation of Illinois morality. Similar roles also have been documented among the Winnebago, Sauk and Fox, Miami, and Potawatomi. Among these groups visions or dreams were believed to playa role in determining berdache identity. The Potawatomi considered such individuals "extraordinary ... ·z Indeed, the widespread occurrence of this role among Algonkian-speakers of the Plains (the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Blackfoot, and Gros Ventre) and in the subarctic region makes its apparent absence among eastern Algonkians all the more suspect. 4l
The most troublesome term in this book is "berdache" itself. In recent years, calls have been made to replace berdache with "two-spirit." In 1993, a group of anthropologists and natives issued gUidelines that formalized these preferences. "Berdache," they argued, is a term "that has its origins in Western thought and languages." Scholars were asked to drop its use altogether and Lo insert" [sic]" following its appearance in quoted texts. In its place they were encouraged to use tribally specific terms for multiple genders or the term "two-spirit." Two-spirit was also identified as the preferred label of contemporary gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender natives. 68
Unfortunately, these guidelines create as many problems as they solve, beginning with a mischaracterization of the history and meaning of the word "berdache." As a Persian term, its origins are Eastern not Western. Nor is it a derogatory term, except to the extent that all terms for nonmarital sexuality in European societies carried a measure of condemnation. It was rarely used with the force of "faggot," but more often as a euphemism with the sense of "lover" or "boyfriend." Its history, in this regard, is akin to that of "gay," "black," and "Chicano"-terms that also lost negative connotations over time.
Alternative gender roles were one of the most widespread and distinctive features of native societies throughout the continent, yet they are barely mentioned in ethnographies and, until the 1980s, no anthropologist or historian comprehensively studied them. A conspiracy of silence has kept the subject obscured and hidden In the eight volumes published to date of the Smithsonian Institution's state-of-the-art Handbook of North American Indians, berdaches are mentioned in entries for only sixteen tribes-an accuracy rate of barely ten percent based on the number of tribes with alternative gender roles listed in the index here.
Both male bote and warrior women were noted among the Crows by early explorers and traders. According to the German Prince Maximilian, who traveled on the northern plains between 1832 and 1834, "They have many bardaches, or hermaphrodites, among them.'''o In 1856, Edwin Denig also noted the number of berdaches among the Crows. According to Denig, the adoption of bote status by boys resulted from the "habits of the child"-in particular, a preference for the work and association of women. "The disposition appears to be natural and cannot be controlled. When arrived at the age of twelve or fourteen 1, and his habits are formed, the parents clothe him in a girl's dress and his whole life is devoted to the labors asSigned to the females." Denig also described Woman Chief, a famous female hunter, warrior, and Crow leader who died in 1854 (see chapter 4) .
( 1 I can't help of think of my first boyfriends at 13, and how much I wished I lived in a culture as this,thus dress as one of the girls, be with them working ) me
Matrilineal and matrilocal customs ensured the high status and prestige of Navajo women. Homes and lands passed from mothers to daughters; husbands lived with their wives' families; divorce could be initiated by either party. The ddest woman in the household, along with her sisters, controlled the use of family lands and sheep. Since children belonged to their mother's clan, there was no illegitimacy. In this social organization, the third gender role enjoyed high status and prestige. The term nadluhf was used to refer to both female and male berdaches.
In fact, the assumption that nadleehi were hermaphrodites reflects central bdiefs in Navajo philosophy. In myths male and female principles are consistently offset, sometimes by the pairing of supernaturals, sometimes within a single supernatural being·] Nadleehi are an example of the latter. However, this was seen not as a crossing or switching of genders, but as a state of continuous fluctuation between them. Rather than juxtaposing male and female (as in the true hermaphrodite) or androgynously blending the two, nadleehi were simultaneously male, female, and hermaphroditic." This is the literal meaning of the term nadleehi, "the one who is (constantly) changing.,,
In such a belief system, anatomical sex is merely the outer form of an inner, psychological form. Since the inner form of nadleehi was hermaphroditic, many Navajo assumed that their outer, physical form would reflect this condition. At the same time. the practice of always representing male and female Simultaneously, as a symmetrical pair, means that both principles are always present, whether as outer or inner forms, and consequently all beings have both male and female qualities. Nadleehi, in this regard, merely represent that special case in which these principles are offset Within a single individual rather than by the pairing of two.
Consequently, even though Navajo work and social roles were allocated according to gender, gender did not delimit an individual's social experience. As one of Hill's informants explained, U A boy may act like a girl until he is eighteen or twenty-five; then he may tum into a man or he may not. Girls do the same lhing.,,47 Certain religious observances provide all Navajos with a chance to assume a different gender position. During the Yeibichai ceremony. for example, the mask of the female Yt'ii god is held before the face of each initiate, who looks through the triangular eyes of the mask. Together these two triangles form a diamond-the symbol of Changing Woman, the Navajo Earth Mother. What the initiates learn to see is a female view of the world.
There is another side to the display of native culture, however, and that is the way in which beautiful objects can have an appeal across cultural boundaries. Appreciation of native arts was one of the first areas in which Euro-Americans were able to perceive native people as their intellectual and creative equals. It is no coincidence that so many activists in the campaign against the U.S. government's program of forced assimilation also promoted the preservation, improvement, and marketing of native arts and crafts. If beautiful pots, baskets, and weavings were what it meant to embrace cultural pluralism, then most Americans in the early twentieth century were willing to accommodate the continuing presence of tribal communities.
Wheelwright's friendship with Klah was based on deep mutual regard. She wrote, I grew to respect and love him for his real goodness, generosity-and holiness, . for there is no other word for it. He never had married, having spent twenty-five years stud}ing not only the ceremonies he gave, but all the medicine lore of the tribe. He helped at least eight of his nieces and nephews with money and goods . . . . When I knew him he never kept anything for himself. It was hard to see him almost In rags at his ceremonies, but what was given him he seldom kept, passing. it on to someone who needed it. ...
As the friendship between Wheelwright and Klah developed, Newcomb noted th,lt -many of Mary's friends and relatives had wondered why she spent so much of her time and money on the Navaho Reservation. They did not see how she could be so much interested in a medicine man and his primitive religion. Since she could not bring them all to the Navaho country to meet Klah, she decided to take Klah to her summer home in Maine to meet them."I04 In the summer of 1928, Klah and the Newcombs traveled across the United States by car ~o Northeast Harbor, Maine. The white world must have puzzled Klah, for all along the way his party was denied food and accommodations because of the color of his skin. Yet, when he finally arrived in Maine, he was the guest of honor at a reception attended by some of the wealthiest and most influential people of the day.
Through it all Klah remained perfectly at ease. He took long walks in the nearby woods and told Wheelwright that "he was sure that Bego chidii [a berdache deity] ... was in Maine because it smelled so sweet."
Klah's last sojourn in the white world appears to have left him disillusioned. Despite his willingness to form friendships with Anglos and to adapt traditional ways to changing times, he found the white world alien. As he told a reporter in Gallup; " The Americans hurry too much. All the time you hurry and worry how you are going to hurry and worry more. You go thru life so fast you can't see beauty. I live the way I did when I came here first in 1893. I am happy. That is why I come. I want to show the white people that 1 am happier than they are because I don·! have all those things to worry about "
The Wheelwright Museum of the American Indian is a museum devoted to Native American arts. It is located in Santa Fe, New Mexico and was founded in 1937 by Mary Cabot Wheelwright, who came from Boston, and Hastiin Klah, a Navajo singer and medicine man
by Will Roscoe
A view of North American berdache excerpts;
As the Spanish chronicler Morfi reported of Texas Indians, "In this nation there are many boys whom the Spaniards of Bejar call hermaphrodites; but it is not known whether they are actually hermaphrodites or not.,,43 Nonetheless, the citizens of this frontier community chose to assume they were, and in using "hermaphrodite" instead of "sodomite" they made a concession to native sensibilities.
Laudonni~res and Le Moyne's widely disseminated reports spawned a longlived debate among French authors over the nature of North American gender diversity. Observers of the Illinois in the late seventeenth century, for example, credited them with numerous hermaphrodites but also "hommes destinez d~ leur enfance, ~ cet usage detestable" ("men destined from childhood for that detestable use") and men with "un malheureux penchant pour la Sodomie" ("an unfortunate desire for Sodomy").
For Heyne, male homosexuality is inseparable from gender variance, although he is uncertain whether effeminization (which he conceives of in primarily physiological terms) causes homosexual acts or homosexual acts cause effeminization. In either case, the object of knowledge-the male who VJ.ries in terms of gender and/or sexuality-now has a body. The cause of his behavior is to be sought there.
The above uncertainity " effeminization (which he conceives of in primarily physiological terms) causes homosexual acts or homosexual acts cause effeminization ?" has been dilemma for myself all my life. As wanting to be like a female physically (have a vagina/breasts) as well as be treated sexually like I am a female started in early childhood, thus by puberty I was clearly naturally wanting to be with boys in the female role.
A dilemma that occurred pyschologically in my case ; " once I actually allowed a boyfriend penetrate me anally,copulate with me like I was a girl, especially by taking his semen into my body. I essense I knew I never could be like a real man or wasn't mean't to be!, especially when attempting to be with a female in a traditional male role,knowing it wasn't fair to her, as it was like I was "faking it " trying to be like a man.
I do know just from experince the only role I have ever desired is the female sexual role, thus the life long desire to have female like genitals, thus a boyfriend would at least know I chose to be like a female. -me
I always known since puberty that I should be like a girl sexually, thus dreamed I could mainly have a vagina, and take a man in me truly like a female can, not have to worry of the stigma attached to taking a man's penis up into my bottom, or the demand of always needing to clean my bottom so I can perform my role for a man.
Yet I feel the term emasculated pyschologically best suits my dilemma and effeminization comes in degrees and is expressed in performance in the actual intercourse with a man, where as emasculated into female-roled male is my pyschological state of mind, for myself, simply having a vagina, even if zero-depth, show a man that I am fully committed to being female like for him.
The actual surgery would be like a " Proof ", a way of expressing, " yes I truly sexually feel female and only want to be female like sexually ". I literally can't be like a man sexually, zero desire to be in the male role.
In my mind the eunuch and berdache have to be trusted to be amongest the females,
be without interest or ability to mate with the females.
Thus in a tribe / society where males of this trait are needed or advantageous, Ideally a male like myself, whom clearly is sexually inverted, desires to be in the female sexual role for male as I did.
Yet society instead of showing guidance, having a role for myself to be in.
For example; At time of my puberty, I clearly wanted to be in the female sexual role with males and clearly a few males seen this in me.
Thus my emasculation process began, the males I was with whom were treating me though a female.
Yet because we were discovered and simply " shamed ", not guidance, simply "sweep under the rug".
Yet for myself, being sexually inverted just don't go away,
and thus, in a way I felt I was left ; "partially emasculated",
where as if I would of continued in my female-role, in a short while I would of been 100% fully psychological emasculated as I am now, and clearly was after becoming committed to be female-roled for men by 1998, after soon routinely being " penetrated " by men and taking their semen up inside me.
Thus , I can't imagine;
even desiring to mate with a female
or capable of the act
Thus my point here is a sexual inverted male is the ideal candidate to be with the females to help them,shield them etc.
I think Cat above delivers a message that is very important regarding being transsexual, which at least I believe in regards to male to female ; a male whom is psychologically sexually like a female, desires to have sex with men as a female, fully take the role of a female.